Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities Affecting the Marine, Coastal and Associated Freshwater Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region

Programme, United Nations Environment (1999) Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities Affecting the Marine, Coastal and Associated Freshwater Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region. Technical Report.

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    Abstract

    This document provides a regional overview on land-based sources and activities affecting the marine, coastal and associated freshwater environment in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR). As stated in article 2 of the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention) “The “Convention area” means the marine environment of the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea and areas of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent thereto, south of 30° north latitude and within 200 nautical miles of the Atlantic coast of the states referred to in article 25 of the Convention”. The area of the Cartagena Convention includes twelve continental States, thirteen Island States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, three overseas Departments of France, a territory shared by Netherlands and France (St. Marteen) and eleven dependent Territories. [96] The above description encompasses the following nations and territories: Anguilla (United Kingdom), Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba (Netherlands), Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom), Cayman Islands (United Kingdom), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, France, Grenada, Guadeloupe (France), Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique (France), Mexico, Montserrat (United Kingdom), Netherlands Antilles Federation (Netherlands), Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico (U.S.A.), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom), United States of America, U.S. Virgin Islands (U.S.A.) and Venezuela. The WCR is not an exception when it comes to the serious impacts and threats that affect the coastal and marine ecosystems owing to the excess of uncontrolled land-based activities and sources of pollution. As a result of this research, several initiatives taken by international development banks were identified as important steps to control some of the main land-based sources and activities affecting the marine, coastal and associated freshwater environment in specific countries of the region. The majority of these initiatives are going to assist some of the countries of the region in developing the necessary infrastructure and treatment facilities to deal with domestic sewage, solid waste and ship generated waste. Although many countries in the region such as Barbados, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States and Venezuela have adopted national legislation that in principle should have assisted them in controlling the factors that cause pollution or degradation problems of their marine, coastal and associated freshwater environment, and they have acceded to the majority of the international environmental agreements, the problems identified in 1992 (UNEP(OCA)/CAR IG.9/INF.5), are still valid in mid 1998. Enforcement of existing legislation, duplication of efforts at the national and international level, lack of co-ordination and clear lines of responsibilities at the national level, lack of public awareness, strong institutions and human resources continue to impair the sustainable use of the natural resources of the region. It is of paramount importance that the countries undertake periodic assessments of the status of pollution and that they provide all reports prepared to the Caribbean Environment Programme Regional Co-ordinating Unit in Kingston. Under the Cartagena Convention, a Protocol on the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from landbased sources and activities (LBS Protocol) is currently under negotiation. The draft Protocol sets forward obligations, institutional responsibilities and its specific annexes establish priority source categories and management practices. The full implementation of the Protocol on land-based sources (LBS) of pollution in the future could be the most efficient tool to control land-based pollution in the region.

    Item Type: Technical Reports (Technical Report)
    Related URLs:
      Publisher: United Nations Environment Programme
      Keywords: land based sources, freshwater, coastal,
      Subjects: (C) Ecosystems > (CA) Freshwater > (CAC) Rivers
      (C) Ecosystems > (CB) Marine > (CBG) Sandy Beaches
      (E) Hydrology
      (F) People and the Environment > (FB) Resource Use
      (G) Pollution > (GB) Waste > (GBB) Liquid
      (G) Pollution > (GB) Waste > (GBC) Solid
      (G) Pollution > (GC) Water
      (Z) Other or Unspecified
      Publication Sources: (3) Other Source > (3B) NGOs
      Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2010 16:07
      Last Modified: 20 Jan 2011 14:53
      URI: http://eprints.uberibz.org/id/eprint/56

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