Perspective on the application of closed shrimp culture systems

Browdy, Craig L and Bratvold, Delma and Stokesland, Alvin D. and McIntosh, P (2001) Perspective on the application of closed shrimp culture systems. ResearchGate, Belize City. (Submitted)

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    The environmental sustainability of aquaculture in general - and shrimp culture in particular - has received increasing attention in recent years. Discharge of nutrient-rich effluent from intensive culture systems can copntribute to eutrophication of receiving waters, potentially impacting both natural biota and and local culture operations. With the proliferation of catastrophic viral epidemics, implementation of techniques for minimizing water exchange has increased. A growing volume of scientific research and industry experience confirms that water exchange may be reduced or eliminated. Supplemental aeration plays a key role in the successful operation of semi-intensive and intensive closed systems. To maintain appropriate dissolved oxygen levels it has been estimated that paddlewheel aeration, used in many closed systems, must be increased by 10% or more over levels traditionally applied in intensive culture. As aeration rates are increased, aerator placement and use of backup aeration and alarm systems becomes a necessity. The pond microbial community plays a major role in pond dissolved oxygen dynamics, natural food availability and mineral recycling rates. A growing volume of research and hands-on experience suggests that manipulation of microbial communities through supplementation of limiting nutrients, selective habitat expansion, or culture additions can have positive impacts. In some cases, however, these same techniques can have unexpected consequences requiring more basic research on pond microbial community ecology and an improved understanding of mechanisms of action. Feed is the major source of nutrient input into pond systems. Without water exchange, control of feed formulations and feed inputs becomes one of the most critical factors for success as levels of intensification are increased. Preliminary studies are now under way aimed at increasing stocking densities in enclosed biosecure raceway systems using static water culture technologies. Preliminary results are presented and avenues for future research are on water reuse are discussed. Sedimentation may represent an effective strategy for removal of organic material from culture systems and harvest water. Additional research will be needed to explore waste treatment and related disposal issues. An extended review of recent publications on the development and application of zero exchange systems at Belize Aquaculture, Ltd., is included. Application of recent technological advances and experience gained in research, pilot and commercial scale systems can improve the outlook for optimization of the design of new systems, the retrofitting of existing systems and the application of management prorocols for shrimp culture with minimal water exchange. The design and management of production facilities to reuse water, minimize exchange and eliminate discharge will improve the outlook for more profitable and sustainable production technologies.

    Item Type: Other
    Related URLs:
      Publisher: ResearchGate
      Subjects: (I) Socio-Economic Information > (IB) Economic Valuation
      (Z) Other or Unspecified
      Publication Sources: (1) Environmental Research Institute
      Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2018 16:45
      Last Modified: 22 Feb 2018 16:45

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